This is an early French cartridge made by Michel Javelle who was an early gun manufacturer from Saint-Étienne, France. There were three variations of this cartridge that were patented and made in the late 1850s to early 1860s. This is the third variation. Both of the earlier versions had the base of the pin holder visible and flush with the bottom of the case.
As seen in the patent images below, this lead-cased cartridge has a pin that is fixed to the inside of the base and goes up to a percussion cap that sits in the base of the bullet. There is also a raised “J” headstamp on these.